Sistem operasi pada hakikatnya merupakan sarana untuk menghubungkan komputer dengan user, di dalamnya terdapat banyak sekali fitur-fitur yang disajikan diantaranya untuk menjalankan program-program atau aplikasi-aplikasi, seluruh aktivitasitu ialah sama, maka kita bisa menyebut seluruh program sebagai proses-proses.

Suatu proses adalah lebih dari kode program, dimana kadang kala dikenal sebagai bagian tulisan. Proses juga termasuk aktivitas yang sedang terjadi, sebagaimana digambarkan oleh nilai pada program counter dan isi dari daftar prosesor/ processor’s register. Suatu proses umumnya juga termasuk process stack, yang berisikan data temporer (seperti parameter metoda, address yang kembali, dan variabel lokal) dan sebuah data section, yang berisikan variabel global.

Keadaan proses

Sebagaimana proses bekerja, maka proses tersebut merubah state (keadaan statis/ asal). Status dari sebuah proses didefinisikan dalam bagian oleh aktivitas yang ada dari proses tersebut. Tiap proses bisa kita definisikan sebagai berikut:

  1. New                      : Proses sedang dikerjakan/ dibuat.
  2. Running               : Instruksi sedang dikerjakan.
  3. Waiting                 : Proses sedang menunggu sejumlah kejadian untuk terjadi (seperti sebuah penyelesaian I/O atau penerimaan sebuah tanda/ signal).
  4. Ready                   : Proses sedang menunggu untuk ditugaskan pada sebuah prosesor.
  5. Terminated        : Proses telah selsesai melaksanakan tugasnya/ mengeksekusi.


Istilah dari kata-kata di atas bisa saja bebeda-beda tergantung dari kita yang menginterpretasikannya, untuk menjelaskan poin-poin di atas kita bisa melihat gambar berikut



Di gambar di atas kita bisa melihat bagaimana suatu program ditangani baik itu ketika siap, berjalan menunggu dan dihancurkan atau terminasi.

Process Control Block

Proses kontrol block adalah proses yang dilakukan oleh sistem operasi untuk mempresentasikan tiap-tiap proses yang ada. Adapun proses-proses yang ada ialah Mutual Exclusion, deadlock, stravation, strategi preemtive, strategi non preemtive, multiprocessing system, dan multiprogramming.  Dalam menjalankan tugasnya proses banyak mengalami gangguan oleh karenanya ada fitur yang bernama PCB (Proses Control Block) untuk membantu dan memberikan dukungan kepada proses itu. Proses Control Block adalah bentuk informasi-informasi lain yang diperlukan sitem operasi untuk mengendalikan dan mengoordinasikan beragam proses aktif dalam suatu proses, berikut adalah sebuah gambar yang bisa sedikit mendeskripsikan Proses Control Blok


Sekilas penjelasan proses-proses dalam PCB :

  • Mutual Exclusion adalah jaminan bahwa hanya satu proses yang mengakses sumber daya pada suatu interval waktu tertentu.
  • Deadlock adalah proses tunggu dimana proses tersebut tidak pernah terjadi. Deadlock biasa juga disebut hang.
  • Stravation situasi dimana proses-proses menunggu secara tidak tentu dengan menggunakan semaphore. Semaphore adalah pendekatan dimana dua atau lebih dapat bekerjasama menggunakan penanda-penanda sederhana.
  • Strategi preemtive yaitu suatu strategi dimana proses yang sedang dieksekusi dapat diambil alih oleh proses lain.
  • Strategi Non Preemtive yaitu suatu strategi dimana proses sedang di eksekusi, maka proses tidak dapat dihentikan atau diambil alih oleh proses lain.
  • Multiprocessing system yaitu dapat menjalankan beberapa proses dalam waktu yang bersamaan.
  • Multiprogramming yaitu menjalankan suatu program dalam waktu yang bersamaan.


Dalam PCB juga terkandung informasi-informasi di dalamnya :

  • Pointer merupakan penunjuk yang dinamis dimana suatu peubah yang akan dialokasikan hanya pada saat diperlukan.
  • Status Proses Status new, ready, running, waiting, terminated, dan sebagainya .
  •  Program Counter. Suatu stack/tumpukan yang berisi alamat dari instruksi yangakan dieksekusi.
  • CPU register.
  • Informasi manajemen memori. Informasi ini dapat termasuk suatu informasisebagai nilai dari dasar dan batas register, tabel halaman, atau tabel segmentergantung pada sistem memori yang digunakan oleh sistem operasi.
  • Informasi pencatatan. Informasi ini termasuk jumlah dari CPU dan waktu yang dipakai, batas waktu, jumlah akun, jumlah proses, dan sebagainya.
  • Informasi status M/K. Informasi termasuk daftar dari perangkat M/K yang digunakan pada proses ini.

Pembentukan proses

Saat komputer berjalan, terdapat banyak proses yang berjalan secara bersamaan. Sebuah proses dibuat melalui system call create-process membentuk proses turunan (child process) yang dilakukan oleh proses induk parent process. Proses turunan tersebut juga mampu membuat proses baru sehingga kesemua proses-proses ini pada akhirnya membentuk pohon proses. Ketika sebuah proses dibuat maka proses tersebut dapat memperoleh sumber-daya seperti ”waktu CPU”, ”memori”, ”berkas” atau perangkat ”M/K”. Sumber daya ini dapat diperoleh langsung dari Sistem Operasi, dari Proses Induk yang membagi-bagikan sumber daya kepada setiap proses turunannnya, atau proses turunan dan proses induk berbagi sumber-daya yang diberikan Sistem Operasi. Ada dua kemungkinan bagaimana jalannya (running) proses induk dan turunan berjalan (running). Proses-proses tersebut berjalan secara konkuren atau proses induk menunggu sampai beberapa/seluruh proses turunannya selesai berjalan. Juga terdapat dua kemungkinan dalam pemberian ruang alamat (address space) proses yang baru.

Terminasi proses

Suatu proses diterminasi ketika proses tersebut telah selesai mengeksekusi perintah terakhir serta meminta sistem operasi untuk menghapus perintah tersebut dengan menggunakan system call exit. Pada saat itu, proses dapat mengembalikan data keluaran kepada proses induk-nya melalui system call wait. Semua sumber-daya yang digunakan oleh proses akan dialokasikan kembali oleh system operasi agar dapat dimanfaatkan oleh proses lain. Suatu proses juga dapat diterminasi dengan sengaja oleh proses lain melalui system call abort. Biasanya proses induk melakukan hal ini pada turunannya. Alasan terminasi tersebut seperti:

  1. Turunan melampaui penggunaan sumber-daya yang telah dialokasikan. Dalam keadaan ini, proses induk perlu mempunyai mekanisme untuk memeriksa status turunannya-nya.
  2. Task yang ditugaskan kepada turunan tidak lagi diperlukan.
  3.  Proses induk selesai, dan sistem operasi tidak mengizinkan proses turunan untuk tetap berjalan.

Jadi, semua proses turunan akan berakhir pula. Hal ini yang disebut cascading termination.



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